Mokshamu Galada

Mokshamu Galada…….………

“On this earth, can there be Moksha for those who are not Jivanmuktas?”1

Thus begins Tyagaraja’s kriti (composition) Mokshamu Galada in Raga Saramati, a rare and soul-stirring raga that touches one’s heart and makes it ache with sorrowful yearning.  This evocative and contemplative composition is in Telugu, one of the four Dravidian languages of South India (the others being Kannada, Tamil and Malayalam). Telugu has a mellifluous, resonant, flowing quality that Tyagaraja has lyrically captured in his magnificent kritis. William J. Jackson notes that poet-saints like Tyagaraja who composed in regional languages (instead of Sanskrit) offer a devotional “democratization” of sorts so that spirituality becomes accessible to one and all and thus broadens the “possibilities for participation”.1

The etymology of the word kriti is fascinating. The Sanskrit “Kriti” and the English “creation” are cognate with the Indo-Aryan root, meaning “to create”. Kriti also means “to wonder”1. And in this kriti, Tyagaraja wonders- “On this earth, can there be Moksha for those who are not Jivanmuktas?

So who is a Jivanmukta exactly? A Jivanmukta  is one who becomes a  Jnani (enlightened being) who, by transcending worldly attachments while still living on earth, attains Moksha.2 The qualities possessed by a Jivanmukta are further explained in the Bhagavad Gita (Song of the Lord). In chapter 5, verses 19 and 20, Lord Krishna tells his friend and devotee Arjuna that a liberated person “neither rejoices upon achieving something pleasant nor laments upon obtaining something unpleasant, is self- intelligent, un-bewildered. In other words, a person who practices equanimity has already “conquered the conditions of birth and death”.3

The concept of Moksha or liberation is integral to Hindu philosophical thought. Moksha is intimately tied into the notion of Samsara, the never-ending cycle of birth and death the soul undergoes, through many life forms, ultimately culminating in human birth.  Human life is guided by the attainment of 4 major goals, as defined by the 4 Purusharthas4 (objectives of a human being). First and foremost, the goal of a human being is to follow Dharma, defined as right conduct/ righteousness. The next goal is for one to acquire Artha, translated as wealth or material prosperity. Pursuing the fulfillment of both sensual and emotional desires is Kama.  The pursuing of both Artha and Kama are dictated by Dharmic tenets. It is interesting to note that the ancient Hindu texts did not advocate a monastic existence, encouraging instead an active engagement with all facets of life.  The final goal of human life then (after fulfilling one’s worldly obligations) is to attain Moksha.

Saakshatkara Nee ………


 

“O Lord who appears before me (Saakshatkara Nee), to those with no genuine devotion (Bhakthi) or knowledge of music (Sangeetha Jnana), can there be salvation?”

Here, the translation barely captures the nuances that Tyagaraja conveys in the original Telugu. The phrase “Sangeetha Jnana” does not merely refer to technical knowledge of music which in itself, is not sufficient to help one advance on the spiritual path. Tyagaraja’s words do not imply that a lack of musical knowledge would preclude the musically uninitiated from attaining liberation. Even if one does not have the ability to sing, one surely can cultivate the ability to listen. Of equal or possibly greater importance is the capacity to be moved by music, to be transformed by it, to allow oneself to be lifted to states of transcendence, to open oneself up to mind-blowing ecstasy. Tyagaraja was a practitioner of Nadayoga – a rigorous spiritual undertaking (Sadhana) in which the knowledge and practice of music was said to offer a direct pathway to salvation. It makes sense that Tyagaraja, being both a musician and a mystic, urged the seeker to combine his or her love of music with their love of God so that they may move beyond the trappings of mundane existence and attain salvation.

 Of Breath and Fire……………..

In composing this kriti, Tyagaraja draws on the 13th century musical treatise of the eminent musicologist Sarngadeva.1 In the famed Sangita Ratnakara (Ocean of Music), the worship of Nada Brahman (divine sound) is seen as the way to liberation. To quote from the text, “we worship the Nada Brahman (divine sound), the life of all beings, transformed in the shape of the world, the sentience, the bliss.”The notion that divinity manifests as sound vibrations in space comes from the Sama Veda which is a foundational source for the study of music in Hindu lore and is also articulated in various other texts. For example, in Chapter 7, Verse 8 of the Bhagavad Gita3, Lord Krishna tells Arjuna “I am the syllable Om in the Vedic mantras, the sound in ether”. The notion that the cosmos was created from divine sound is an ancient one, finding resonance in various mystical and religious traditions around the world.

The vibration of the sound Om (Pranava nada) manifests in the form of the seven notes of music (Saptaswaras) through the combination of Prana (Life force, or vital breath) and Anala (Fire). In other words, the seven notes sa, ri, ga, ma, pa, da, ni are derived from the vibrational energy of the sound Om. This concept is elaborated in a shloka from the Swararnava-“In the center of the body is the Prana, in the centre of the Prana is dhwani (sound), in the centre of the dhwani is the nada (musical sound) and in the centre of the nada is Sadasiva, the supreme Lord”.

And Tyagaraja ends his kriti by making one final appeal- “O Lord adored by Tyagaraja, for those who don’t know the consciousness of Siva who is fond of playing the Veena, on this earth, can there be liberation for those who have not found realization?”

Bibliography

  1. William J. Jackson (1991) Tyagaraja: Life and Lyrics; Oxford University Press
  1. E. N Purushothaman (1975) Tyagopanishad; Andhra Pradesh Sangeeta Nataka Akademi
  1. His Divine Grace A.C.Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (1996) Bhagavad-Gita as it is; Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, Mumbai.
  1. http://www.hinduwebsite.com/hinduism/h_aims.asp

 

Pronunciation Guide

Photo Credit: www.swarmanttra.com

Pallavi

Mokshamu Galada Bhuvilo

Jeevanmuktulu Gaanivaralaku

 Anupallavi

Saakshatkara Nee Sadbhakthi

Sangeeta Jnana Vihinulaku

 Charanam

Praana nala Samyogamu Valla

Pranava Nada Saptaswaramulai Baraga

Veena Vadanaloludow Shiva mano

Vitha Merugaru Tyagaraja Vinutha

 

Links to various performances of Mokshamu Galada

  • An absolutely beautiful, lilting violin rendition by the legendary Lalgudi Jayaraman.

 

 

  • A lovely, melodious Veena rendition by E. Gayathri. An added bonus is the humorous and explanatory notes that appear.

 

 

  • A majestic vocal performance by Maharajapuram Santhanam

 

 

  • An elaborate, beautiful performance by T.S Sathyavathi

 

 

 

 

Advertisements

7 thoughts on “Mokshamu Galada

  1. thank you for this insightful article. your deep love for this song is palpable….as it should be….

    Liked by 1 person

    • Jayasri says:

      Thank you so much for your kind words and having taken the time to give me feedback.
      Hope you enjoyed the music links as well.
      Best regards,
      jayasri

      Like

  2. I just chanced upon this blog. Beautiful blog post and lovely links. Yes, Lalgudi Sir’s piece is incredibly moving.

    Like

  3. N C Raghava says:

    Dear Smt. Jayasri Ji, Enjoyed the Kriti on violin by the legend Sri. Lalgudi Jayaraman and the above write-up.
    Please do a similar write-up on a Kriti in bhowli raga and sahana raga. Or direct me if there is one already on your blog.
    Thanks & Regards. Raghava.

    Like

  4. Manian says:

    It will be nice to have the kriti in Tamil and in Sanskrit so that
    the bhavas can be infused when one sings.
    Thanks
    Ramji

    Like

  5. Krishna kumar says:

    Really soul stirring blog.Thanks for blogging one of the ultimate song sung by great composer & recorded by many music stalwarts

    Like

  6. SIVA IYER says:

    Wonderful post on the meaning of the entire song mokshamu galata… I was wondering whether what Saint Thyagaraja praised in this Kriti was Lord Sri Rama or Shiva… After reading your post, I could get the vast inner meaning and the references you quoted from Gita to many overseas writers, validates the relevance of your indepath reading and knowledge on the vast canvas of the spirituality and the HINDU Mythological contours as well… Sincerely thank you for your excellent post with well substantiated facts… I feel whenever I hear this Kriti I could enjoy still more….
    iyer Shiva

    Like

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s